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Friday, December 28, 2007

16.The Paint Bucket Tool

The paint bucket tool is another very useful tool. To use the paint bucket tool, simply click on the pouring paint bucket icon in the toolbox.

[Color Box] When you do so, you will see that your pointer changes into a paint bucket and that when you click on the canvas, you can fill areas with the color specified in the foreground color box

The paint bucket tool has all of te usual brush options as well as the opacity slider that we have already discussed for other drawing tools. It also allows you to modify the contents and tolerance values in the Options Palette.

Essentially, tolerance affects how broadly the paint bucket will fill. If set to a high tolerance, the tool will fill all shades of a color whereas if it is set low it will fill less shades. The figure below shows how a higher tolerance means that more shades of red will be filled with the blue color. We are going to discuss the content and tolerance options tomorrow along with other advanced features of the paint bucket. So for now, just practice filling basic blocks of your canvas.

15.The Text Tool

The text tool is one of the most powerful tools in your toolbox because it opens the door to a multitude of pre-designed font libraries. These font libraries allow you to create graphical versions of letters using pre-designed formats. Photoshop handles these font libraries just as it would any image. Thus you can do all the same things with fonts that you do with any other image in Photoshop.

To place text based images in your canvas you need only select the text tool from the toolbox and click on the canvas in the area you want the text to appear.

When you do so, the Type Tool Dialog will appear.

This dialog allows you to specify what characters you want displayed and many other font related options such as font type, size, alignment, style and characteristics.

We are going to spend a lot more time looking at how to manipulate text tomorrow, so for now, just get comfortable with the tool.

Notice that when you hit the "OK" button in the Type Tool Dialog, Photoshop will place the text within the canvas, but the text will be selected. Since it is selected, you can certainly drag it around and place it anywhere you want. We will talk more about selection tomorrow.

14.The Airbrush Tool

The airbrush works a lot like the paintbrush except that it continues to apply paint as long as the mouse button. Actually, with the exception of the Pressure slider, the options for airbrush are the same as for paintbrush

The pressure modifies how much paint is sprayed when the mouse is down. To spray paint you simply choose the airbrush tool [Airbrush Tool] click on the canvas and hold the mouse down while dragging. Actually, the effect is very much like an airbrush and you can design some pretty nifty graffiti.

13.The Line Tool

he line tool is used to draw straight lines on the canvas. It is pretty intuitive, you simply choose the line tool from the toolbox, click once on the canvas to specify the beginning point of your line and then drag the mouse to define the line extending from the starting point.

As with the paintbrush and pencil, you have the full range of brush options and the opacity slider to modify the look of your line. [Line Tool] However, the line tool also allows you to modify the line width with the line width textfield, the state of anti-aliasing, using the anti-alias checkbox, and whether or not you want the line to end or start with an arrow using the arrowheads checkbox. In the case of the arrowhead option, you can also modify the shape of the arrowhead by using the "Shape" button.

Try out the tool and make some lines and arrows on your canvas.

Though the line tool is pretty easy to use, it is not exactly the best way to make lines. In fact, most designers tend to use the SHIFT key instead of the line tool to get lines. To draw a straight line with any of the paint or edit tools, you should 1) click on the canvas, 2) press the SHIFT key, and 3) click on a second point on the canvas. Photoshop will draw a line between the two points you specified. Try it out.

You needn't stop with two points either. If you continue to hold the SHIFT key down and click more points on the canvas, you will add more lines connecting all the specified points. Can you make the following design without using the line tool?

You can also draw lines perpendicular to any line by holding down the mouse button while pressing the SHIFT key and dragging in a vertical or horizontal direction

Try getting the following image...

12.The Paintbrush Tool

The paintbrush works much like the pencil tool except that it paints an anti-aliased line that blens
with the background.

Like the pencil tool, you have all the regular brush options as well as the opacity and Fade options. Try them out to see the effects of the options on anti-aliased lines.
Besides the usual cast of options, the paintbrush also has a "Wet Edges" option in the Options palette which when checked, causes the paintbrush to create a translucent line with darkened edges similar to water color painting.

11.The Pencil Tool

Okay, now that we are comfortable with our brush, let us take a look at a specific drawing tool and see what we can draw. Specifically, let's look at the pencil tool.

To use the pencil tool, simply select it from the toolbar by depressing the pencil tool icon. [Pencil Tool Icon] When you do so, you can draw on the canvas. Try it out. And don't forget to modify your brush size, roundness, angle, etc..

As you can see, the pencil tool can be very useful. However, Photoshop gives you plenty of ways to modify the pencil tool even further.

You have already seen the multitude of brush options available in the last section. Try some of the options out. The Screen, Multiply and Overlay options are particularly neat.

Note: If you ever mess something up when drawing on or modifying your canvas, you need only use the "Undo" choice in the "Edit" menu item. This will take you back to where you were just before you messed things up!

However, the pencil tool also has several options which are not generic modifications as well. For one, the pencil tool allows you to modify the opacity of the brush using the opacity slider in the Options palette [Opacity Slider] . Opacity defines how
much of the background color will show through the lines you draw with your pencil. try out a few values (you will need a different colored background to see it work).

Another useful option is the fade option which allows you to streak with the pencil tool. Try it out and notice that you can fade transparently or by using the background color

10.Defining the Brush

Photoshop uses the generic term "brush" to represent any of the drawing tools. Thus, the "paint brush" tool will have a brush and the "pencil" tool will also have a brush. This is a little confusing at first but you will quickly get the hang of the terminology. Actually, it helps to think of a brush as the "drawing edge" of whatever drawing tool you are using. Thus, drawing from Photoshop's art studio metaphor, a paint brush's brush would be the bristles of the paint brush while a pencil tool's brush would be the pencil's tip.

The importance of defining the "brush" is that once defined, brushes can be customized. For example, you can change the shape or size of your brush. Think of a dull pencil point versus a sharp pencil point and imagine the different types of lines the pencils would draw. Similarly, think of the shape of a calligraphy pen versus the tip of a magic marker or even a highlighting pen. Though the default brush is plenty powerful, it is useful to get the hang of working with custom brushes because each type of brush will be better or worse in various situations.

To customize the brush you should access the "options" palette.

Brush Shape
The most common customization you will perform is to modify the size of the brush. To do so, you use the "Brushes" tab in the "Options" palette and choose a larger or smaller brush by selecting from the range given.

Except for the Pencil tool, brush shapes are always anti-aliased. Thus, you can choose both a hard edge or a soft edge by choosing either the solid or blended edge circles.

Customizing Your Brush
Of course, Photoshop allows you to create your own brush if you need something not offered by the set of default brushes.

If you access the Brushes menu from the Options palette flyaway menu, you will see the various operations available to you.

Notice in particular the "Brush Options" and the "new Brush" menu choices. Click on either one of these and you can customize your own brush.

As you can see, there are several factors that define a brush besides size and hardness. You will also be asked to define the spacing, angle and roundness of the brush.

The spacing controls how frequently a tool affects an image as you drag. Turn up the spacing and you get splotchy lines if you drag your mouse quickly over the canvas. A low spacing will track your mouse more exactly

Angle allows you to pivot your brush shape on its axes which is really only useful on elliptical or strangely-shaped brushes.

Roundness is used to modify how elliptical a brush is A value of 100 creates a circle and a value of 15 creates a long, skinny elliptical shape.

Of course, you can also create purely custom brushes or load in pre-generated ones....

Customizing Your Brush
The brushes palette for every paint tool also contains a popup menu of varying brush modes. These modes modify how a tool will integrate with existing color on the canvas.

When you draw something on the canvas, Photoshop modifies the existing pixels in the background according to the logic of painting. Thus if you paint a streak of red over a streak of blue, the pixels in the streak of blue will be changed to pixels of purple.

Thus, you can think of painting in Photoshop as involving three values: the base value, the blend value, and the result value. Brush modes modify the way this blending works. Specifically, modes specify the way in which the blend and base values will interact to create a result value. Let's look at each of the modes...

The Normal mode applies the full blend value. In the case of a painting tool, the blend color will completely coat the base color. in the case of an edit tool, the edit value will completely override the existing color.

The Threshold mode is specific for Bitmapped and Indexed Color images. Essentially, it assures that the color value of the tool is applied according to the closest available color in the color map.

The Dissolve mode, which is only available for painting tools. randomly scatters the blend color to give a rough textured non anti-aliased brush stroke.

The Behind and Clear modes are available in layered images. Essentially, they modify whether the blend color is applied to the foreground or background layer. When the behind mode is selected for example, a color will be applied behind the layer showing through only int he blank or transparent areas.

The Multiply mode multiplies the brightness of the base color and the blend to create a darker tone. The opposite effect can be achieved by using Screen

Overlay works like screen and multiply depending on the value of the base color. Specifically, the hues of the base color will move towards the blend color. Soft light works like overlay with less intensity while Hard light is more intense.

Darken darkens the base color using the blend color as a basis and Lighten lightens the base color by using the lightest value of the blend color. Difference compares the brightness values of the base and blend colors and creates a result value by subtracting the smaller from larger values.

Hue replaces the hue of the base with the hue of the blend. Saturation does the same for saturation and Color does the same for both hue and saturation. Luminosity works the same way for the lightness value.

Help, I'm Lost!!!!
Finally, feel safe in the knowledge that no matter how much you screw with the brushes, you can always return to the default settings by using the "Reset Tool" or "Reset All Tools" options from the fly menu.

9.Choosing a Color

Choosing a color is a fun process in and of itself and Photoshop gives you such flexibility that color choice can be a beginning, intermediate or advanced task.

For the moment, let's focus on the basics of color. Essentially, choosing color involves two decisions: what color should your canvas be (background color in technical jargon) and what color paint should you use to draw with (foreground color)

Choosing foreground and background color is handled in the Toolbox. Near the bottom of the toolbox you will see the color picker squares [Color Chooser Boxes] The square on top is the foreground color and the square in back is the background color. (note that you can easily make the foreground color the background color and vice versa using the little switcher arrows [Switcher Arrows]

To change the color, you simply click on whichever square you want to change. When you do so, the "Color Picker Dialog" will appear.

Choosing a color is easy, you can choose a color by moving your pointer over the desired color in the color chooser square and clicking. Notice in the figure above that we chose light blue. You can see the exact hue highlighted inside the tiny circle in the color chooser square [Color Picker Circle] If you want to change the range of color, simply click on the color range slider to the right of the color chooser square. Notice that the your original color and your newly chosen color will be represented in the "Color preview box" to the right of the color range slider. in the case of the figure above, the old color was light purple.

Of course, the advanced user can define colors absolutely by their RGB, HSB or CMYK values. A complete discussion of the various modes of defining colors on the computer is beyond the scope of this tutorial, but truly, you don't much need to worry about it so long as you can use the color chooser square and the color range slider.

We are almost ready to start making a mess. But first let us take a look at the set of brushes we have at our disposal.

8. Drawing Things on the Canvas

Of course, now that you are comfortable with your workspace, you will want to start painting things. Actually, I am sure you have already begun to play around with tools in the toolbox. However, before we start "officially" talking about getting virtual paint everywhere, we need to discuss a couple more things.

Like any good program, Adobe Photoshop uses a carefully constructed metaphor to transform a very complex computer aided task into a fun and easy-to-understand process. So why not take advantage of the metaphor. While you are using Photoshop, imagine yourself in a quaint barren room overlooking the side streets of Paris. Put one of those funky painter caps on. Now imagine a blank canvas, a table full of differently shaped brushes and various bottles of colored paint, and an easel in front of you.

Photoshop includes several options for using a stylus with a drawing tablet for a more traditional/intuitive drawing experience. For example, you can affect how thick a brush stroke is by applying more pressure to the drawing tablet. This works more like a real artistic tool would unlike what you would experience with a mouse. However, most web developers are not adobe power users and will not being using a stylus. Thus, we will skip a discussion of stylus options.

Like a painter, you will begin your work of art by first mixing your colors and choosing your brush.

Thus, before we start actually painting, we need to know a few things about the types of tools you have at your disposal as well as well as where all the colors are located on your virtual easel.

Let's look first at our easel and how to choose colors

7. The Palettes

Palettes are essential components of your tool set. For one, palettes help you define the nature of your tools. That is, palettes help you customize how the tools in the toolbox perform. For example, you might "sharpen" (make the line thin) or "dull" (make the line thick) your pencil tool using the "Brushes Palette". Palettes also help you perform some of the more complex tasks such as layering or manipulating complex color schemes.

By default, there are five palettes. these five palettes are shown in the figure below

Though these five palettes control many different aspects of your drawing, they do share several properties.

For one, all palettes are made up of a title bar with close and collapse buttons, a set of tabs, and a list of options for each tab. Further, all palettes have a fly-out menu of options. Consider the figure below:
Another generic property of palettes is the ability to dynamically adjust contents. That is, you can customize the tabs in any palette simply by dragging tabs between palettes. Try it out! Click and hold your left mouse button over a tab in one palette and without letting go of the mouse button, drag the tab to another palette and let go. Now drag the tab back.

Finally, note that if you close a palette, you can easily get it back on screen by choosing "Palettes" from the "Window" menu item and selecting the palette you want shown.

6.The Tool Box

Well, now that you are comfortable with the drawing canvas, let's look at the Toolbox

The Photoshop toolbox holds 20 tools that allow you to paint, select, navigate and edit images. To select a tool you simply click on the icon with your mouse.

When you do so, several things will happen. For one, the selected tool button will "stick" to let you know it is selected. If you look to the figure on the left you will see that the "Eraser" tool is currently selected. Photoshop will also remind you which tool you have selected by modifying the look of your pointer to reflect which tool you are currently using.

Once selected, a tool can be used to mark up the drawing canvas. For most of today we will focus on each of the tools in the toolbar, so for now, just get used to having the toolbar at your disposal and selecting different tools.

Why not take a moment to select various tools in the toolbar and check out how the pointer changes.

When you are done, we can discuss the final component of your workspace, the palette.

5.The Drawing Canvas

The drawing canvas is the area in which you will create and/or modify images. By default, Photoshop gives you a drawing canvas to work with, but you can easily open another one by using the "New" menu choice from the "File" menu item.

For the moment though, let's just use the default canvas given to us by Photoshop.

As you can see from the figure below, every drawing canvas has a title bar with window control buttons and a drawing area. If you have resized the drawing canvas so that the window is larger than the drawing area as we did before we took the screen capture below, Photoshop will fill the margin with a gray, un-paintable area

Note: You can open as many canvases as you want at any one time. Each canvas is accessible through the "Window" menu item or by clicking on it with your mouse.

The title bar has several functions. First off, it displays the current name of the image as well as information about the color mode and zoom scale. As you can see in the figure above, by default, the name will be "Untitled-1", but once you save the image, it will be changed to the name you saved the file under. The color mode and scale measure are more complex, so we will discuss them after we deal with the basics.

Another cool aspect of the title bar is that you can use the title bar to move the drawing canvas anywhere within the workspace by clicking and holding down the mouse button over the title bar and dragging the mouse. Try it out!

Finally, the title bar provides several control buttons. As with other applications, you can use the buttons to minimize [Minimize Button], maximize [Minimize Button] or destroy [Minimize Button] the drawing canvas.

Before we go on, try working with your drawing canvas a bit. For example, try maximizing the canvas, minimizing the canvas, and then destroying the canvas.

Woops, just destroyed the canvas? That is okay, [New Canvas] you can easily open a new canvas to draw on by choosing "New" from the "File" menu.

When you do so, the "New Canvas Dialog" will appear. You can use this dialog to create your own canvas.

Try it out. Title your canvas MyFirstCanavas, set the height to 300 pixels and the width to 300 pixels, and hit the "OK" button. (Note that for the time being we won't worry about mode or resolution. We'll discus those later. For now just accept the defaults)

When you hit the "OK" button, you should see your new canvas popup. Try creating a second one for practice. This time, title the canvas "MySecondCanvas" and set the size to 3 inches by 3 inches.
You should now have two canvases open. Try moving them around and switching between them. You can either select them by clicking on the title bar of the canvas you want or by selecting the name of the canvas from the "Window" menu item

4.The Menu Bar

The Photoshop menu bar works like the menu bar in any other standard application. Thus, for example, the "Save" and "Save As" operations will be found in the "File" menu item and "Copy" and "Paste" will be found in "Edit". No surprises here.

Similarly, the Photoshop menu follows the standard keyboard shortcuts that you expect to see. Thus, the ALT-F combination will access the "File" menu and the ALT-F SHIFT-N combination will access the "New" menu choice from the "File" menu item.

It is a good bet that if in any application you see a menu item with a single letter underlined, that you can access that menu item by using the ALT key in combination with the letter. Similarly, menu choices should be accessible by using the SHIFT key in combination with the underlined letter. using keyboard shortcuts can greatly speed up your work since you do not have to navigate the mouse all over the screen. Why not take a moment to practice accessing menu items using the keyboard? If you commit to learn one keyboard shortcut per week, you will be a master of the menu in a couple of months.

Of course, there are a few non standard menu items such as "Mode" and "Filter", but these will be explained in detail later. For the moment, let's keep our discussion focussed on the basics. Let's move from the menu Bar to the Drawing Canvas.

3.The Photoshop Workspace

When you run Adobe Photoshop, it will load up, initialize, and display your workspace. The workspace consists of several components that you will use to create your works of art.

Generally, there are four components in your workspace that you will use while creating or modifying graphics. These components are as follows:

* The Menu Bar
* The Drawing Canvas
* The Toolbox
* Palettes (There are five palettes by default)

The figure below shows each of these components similar to how they will appear on your screen.

For the majority of today, we will learn how to use these tools in order to make or modify graphics.

2.What Does Photoshop Do?

So what exactly can you do with Photoshop?

Well, like any image-editing program, you can use Photoshop to "alter" images like photos, downloaded icons, or scanned artwork.

Altering an image includes doing such things as changing the colors within an image, modifying the size and scale of an image, or putting one picture "within" another. Here are some versions of a street sign I photographed in Burma.

Alteration also includes technical modifications such as changing the mode of image compression from one type to another, or changing the number of bits used per pixel.

But, aside from altering images, Photoshop has a vast array of tools that help you "create" images from scratch.

On the web, you will often need to make custom icons, buttons, lines, balls or text art. Photoshop makes all of this excessively easy and fun.

It is worth mentioning that Photoshop is not a "classic" drawing, or image creation, program. Unlike a drawing program which stores information about images as mathematical expressions (called Vectors), when Photoshop draws a line, the line is converted into little dots, called pixels. When small enough, and with blended colors (anti-aliasing), these dots can come to look like lines. Think of pointillism. Of course, when magnified or reduced, the optical illusion is dispelled and you get ugly choppy lines.

We will talk more in depth about all of these things over the next couple of days so don't get caught up in any of the words or concepts. The main thing to keep in mind at this point is that Photoshop lets you play. Photoshop lets you play with images. Photoshop is fun.

Introducton to Adobe Photoshop

1.What is Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop is hands down, the most popular program for creating and modifying images for the web.

This is true not only because Photoshop is available on a wide array of platforms ranging from Mac to Windows to UNIX, but because after four generations of development, Adobe Photoshop has the most intuitive user interface, the most complete set of tools, and the largest number of reference books around.

In fact, as Deke McClelland says in Photoshop 3 Bible, "Some estimates say that Photoshop sales exceed those of all of its competitors combined."

Photoshop is only one tool in a good designer's arsenal. Other popular tools include Paint Shop Pro, DeBabelizer, or LView Pro for Windows and GIF Converter or Graphics Converter for Macintosh. Fractal Design, Aldus and HSC also put out some excellent programs

Kenji Tachibana (a gifted freelance graphics artist) and I decided to focus on Photoshop primarily because Photoshop is the program that most web designers use.

However, since most programs these days use similar concepts, many of the things we talk about here will be directly relevant to any other graphics program on the market.
Photoshop Requirements
One thing to keep in mind about using Photoshop however, is that since Photoshop is so powerful, it requires a fairly souped up working environment.

Specifically, it would be a good idea to have at least 32MB of RAM. After all, as a web designer, you will be tasking your system while developing. Often you will have two browsers, Photoshop, an HTML editor, a word processor, and two or three ftp/telnet sessions open all at one time. Without enough resources, your computer will not have enough gusto to keep up with you

Another downside to Photoshop is that it can be rather expensive to get the latest and greatest version. However, this tutorial is written with this in mind. We have limited our discussion mainly to 3.0 basics (which still apply for 4.0 users). These basics represent the foundation of your skills with Photoshop regardless of the version. Thus, after reading through this tutorial, you will have what you need to make stunning web graphics by investing in a 1/4 price year old version of Photoshop. Eventually, of course, you will want to upgrade.

Adobe Photoshop

Introduction To Adobe Photoshop

Are you looking for more info on Free Photoshop? If so, then you are at the right place to find information, news, articles, and tips. Enjoy the Top 10 Sites about Free Photoshop. We have the info you're looking for.

Table of Contents
Part One : Basic Tools

1. What is Photoshop
2. What Does Photoshop Do?
3. The Photoshop Workspace
4. The Menu Bar
5. The Drawing Canvas
6. The Tool Box
7. The Palettes
8. Drawing Things on the Canvas
9. Choosing a Color
10. Defining the Brush
11. The Pencil Tool
12. The Paintbrush Tool
13. The Line Tool
14. The Airbrush Tool
15. The Text Tool
16. The Paint Bucket Tool
17. The Gradient Tool
18. Modifying Things on the Canvas
19. The Eraser Tool
20. The Smudge Tool
21. The Focus Tool
22. The Toning Tools
23. The Eye Dropper Tool
24. The Zoom Tool

Part Two : Advanced Tool

1. Selecting Things
2. The Marquee Tool
3. The Lasso Tool
4. The Magic Wand Tool
5. The Move Tool
6. The Crop Tool
7. Channels
8. Masks
9. Layers
10. Fills
11. Cloning
12. Filters
13. Text Manipulation

Part Three: Learn by Example
  1. Real World Example
  2. Backboard Underpainting
  3. Rainbow Facade Preparation
  4. Rainbow Facade Creation
  5. Logo Text
  6. Logo Text in 3D
  7. Visual Illusion
  8. Save as: File Formats
  9. Buttons
  10. Shadows
  11. Beveling
  12. Arrows

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